While Indonesia upholds the principle of secret ballots and one person, one vote, some parts of Papua are still allowed to choose candidates using the ‘noken’ communal voting system.
Villagers are meant to put their choice for candidate into a traditional noken bag held by the village head. But in practice, the village head often decides where all the votes will go.
The Indonesian word for voting literally means ‘to punch’. Rather than using a pen or pencil, voters punch a hole in the ballot paper with a nail.
This is seen as being harder to manipulate. Votes are counted in public at each polling station soon after polls close. Officers hold each ballot paper up so observers can see light shining through the hole.